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‘Metal Studies’ – A Bibliography
Compiled by Keith Kahn-Harris

Last Updated March 12 2009


NB: Fully catalogued version coming soon!

  • The following is a list of articles, books and essays of Metal music and culture.  I do not claim that this list is comprehensive. I have excluded some articles and books that fall on the borderline between ‘serious’ and ‘non-serious’ journalism.  Note that inclusion in this bibliography does not necessarily mean a recommendation of the work in question.  Please check back periodically for updates to this list.
  • If you have any items (particularly PhD theses and non-English items) to add to this list, or you have corrections to make then please contact me.
  • I am indebted to Fabien Hein for alerting me to a number of these items. Together we published a version of this bibliography in Hein, F. and Kahn-Harris K. ‘Études Metal: Metal Studies: Une Bibliographe’ in Copyright Volume! 5/2 2006 19-32
  • An international academic conference on metal was held in Salzburg, Austria in November 2005. The abstracts and some of the papers can be found here (I have not catalogued the papers individually in the list).
  • I have created a separate list of German-language items at the foot of the bibliography. Thanks to Sebastian Berndt of Erfurt, Germany, for supplying much of the list (English comments on some entries are Berndt's - I don't speak German!).


Articles, books and other papers(all languages except for German)

Agostini, R. (2002) ‘Chimere: Note Su Alcune Musiche (Im)Popolari Contemporanee’ in D’Aamato, F. (ed), Sound Tracks: Tracce, Convergenze e Scenari Degli Studi Musicali, Rome: Meltemi, 2002, pp. 97-125.

Alvsvåg, Martin. (1993) ‘Satan-rock?: destruktive element i tungrocken med særlig vekt på satanisme.’ Oslo: Hovedoppgave i kristendomskunnskap. Det Teologiske Menighetsfakultetet

Arnett, J. J. (1995) Metalheads: Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Alienation. Westview Press: Boulder, CA.

Arnett, J. (1993) ‘Three Profiles of Heavy Metal Fans: A Taste for Sensation and a Subculture of Alienation.’ Qualitative Sociology 16 (4): 423-43.

Arnett, J. (1991) ‘Adolescents and Heavy Metal Music: From the Mouths of Metalheads.’ Youth and Society 23(1): 76-98.

Avelar, I. (2003) “Heavy Metal Music in Postdictatorial Brazil: Sepultura and the Coding of Nationality in Sound.” Journal of Latin American Cultural Studies 12 (3): 329-46.

Avelar, I. (2001) ‘Defeated Rallies, Mournful Anthems, and the Origins of Braziliian Heavy Metal.’ in C. Dunn and C. Peronne (eds) Brazilian Popular Music and Globalization.  Gainsville: University of Florida Press.

Baddeley, G. (1999) Lucifer Rising: Sin, Devil Worship and Rock 'n' Roll. Plexus: London.

Baulch, E. (2007) Making Scenes: Reggae, Punk, and Death Metal in 1990s Bali. Duke University Press.

Baulch, E. (2003) 'Gesturing Elsewhere: The Identity Politics of the Balinese Death/Thrash Metal Scene', Popular Music, 22 (2): 195-216.

Bayer, G. (Ed) (2009) Heavy Metal Music in Britain. Aldershot: Ashgate

Beckwith, K. (2006) 'A Human Being This Once Resembled: Bodily Transgression in Extreme Metal Music'. Unpublished paper. Available here.

Beckwith, K. (2002) ‘’Black Metal is for White People’: Constructs of Colour and Identity within the Extreme Metal Scene’, M/C: A Journal of Media and Culture 5 (3), http://www.media-culture.org.au/0207/blackmetal.php

Berger, H. and Fales C. in press. ‘’Heaviness’ in the Perception of Heavy Metal Guitar Timbres: The Match of Perceptual and Acoustic Features Over Time.’ in Greene and Porcello (eds) Wired for Sound: Engineering and Technologies in Sonic Cultures. Hannover, NH: Wesleyan University Press.

Berger, H. M. (1999) 'Death Metal Tonality and the Act of Listening', Popular Music, 18 (2): 161-178.

Berger, H. M. (1999) Metal, Rock and Jazz: Perception and the Phenomenology of Musical Experience. Wesleyan University Press: Hanover.

Berger, H. M. (1997) 'The Practice of Perception:  Multi-Functionality and Time in the Musical Experience of a Heavy Metal Drummer', Ethnomusicology, 41 (3): 464-488.

Binder, A.  (1993) ‘Constructing Racial Rhetoric: Media Depictions of Harm in Heavy Metal and Rap Music’, American Sociological Review 58(6): 753-767.

Bjornberg, A. (1996). ‘Om Tonal Analys av Nutida Populärmusik.’ Dansk Årbog for Musikforskning 24: 69-84. [contains detailed discussion of tonality in Napalm Death’s song ‘Suffer the Children’]    

Bogue, R. (2004) ‘Becoming Metal, Becoming Death…’ in Deleuze’s Wake: Tributes and Tributaries. Albany: SUNY Press

Bogue, R. (2004) ‘Violence in Three Shades of Metal: Death, Doom and Black’. In Deleuze and Music. Ed. I. Buchanan & M. Swiboda. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 95-117.

Bossius, T. (2003) Med Framtiden I Backspegeln: Black Metal och Transkulturen.  Gothenburg: Daidalos

Breen, M. (1991) ‘A Stairway to Heaven or a Highway to Hell?: Heavy Metal Rock Music in the 1990s.’ Cultural Studies 5: 191-203.

Brizard, C. (2006) ‘La Fusion de la Musique Metal et de la Musique Classique: Nightwish et les Voix Chantées’ Copyright Volume! 5/2 115-136 [in French]

Brown, A. (2003) ‘ Heavy Metal and Subcultural Theory: A Paradigmatic Case of Neglect?’ in Muggleton, D. and Weinzierl, R. The Post-Subcultures Reader. Oxford: Berg

Brown, A.R. (2005) 'Metal Rules! The on-line participation of young metal fans in the deliberative rituals and public debates that constitute the global metal (post)subcultural scene'. Available at: http://www.youth-study.org.uk/

Brown, A.R. ( 2007) 'Rethinking the Subcutural Commodity: Exploring Heavy Metal T-Shirt Culture(s)' in: P. Hodkinson and W. Deicke (eds.) Youth Cultures: Scenes, Subcultures and Tribes London: Routledge.

Brown, A.R. (2007) "Everything Louder than Everything Else': The Contemporary Metal Music Magazine and its Cultural Appeal' Journalism Studies 8(3): 642-55

Brown, Charles A. (2003) ‘Apocalyptic Unbound: An Interpretation of Christian Speed/Thrash Music.’ In Remaking God in our Own Image: Contemporary Religious Movements, George Lundskow.  Asheville, NC: McFarland Publishing. 

Brown, Charles A. (1995) ‘Musical Responses to Oppression and Alienation: Blues, Spirituals, Secular Thrash, and Christian Thrash Metal Music.’  International Journal of Politics, Culture and Society  8(3): 439-452

Brunner, I. (2006) Taken to the Extreme: Heavy Metal Cover Songs - The Impact of Genre. PhD Thesis. Bowling Green State University.

Bryson, B. (1996) ‘'Anything but Heavy Metal': Symbolic Exclusion and Musical Dislikes.’ American Sociological Review 45 (2): 884-99

Burghart, D (1999) Soundtracks to the White Revolution: White Supremacist Assaults on Youth Music Subcultures, Center for the New Community [contains chapter on National Socialist Black Metal]

Chidester, P. (2004) Through the blood: Death metal and the rhetoric of song as a transcendent discursive/presentational form. PhD thesis. University of Kansas.

Chu, M. T. (2006) ‘Qu’est-ce Qu’une Culture Locale? La Pratique et L’expression du Black Metal à Taiwan’ Copyright Volume! 5/2 53-74 [in French]

Claus-Bachmann, M. (2000) ‘Gothic, Metal, Rap, and Rave: Youth Culture and Its Educational Dimensions’ The World of Music 42 (1).

Covach, J. (1995) 'Stylistic Competencies, Musical Humor, and 'This is Spinal Tap'', in E. Marrin and R. Herman (eds) Concert Music, Rock and Jazz Since 1945: Essays and Analytical Studies pp. 399-421. Hanover: University of Rochester Press.

Darnielle, J. (2008). Master of Reality. London: Continuum.

Dath, D. (2000) 'Die Ambivalenz der Moderne - Black Metal zwischen Avantgarde und Faschismus'. testcard #9: Pop und Krieg.

Denski, S. and Sholle, D. (1992) 'Metal men and Glamour Boys: Gender Performance in Heavy Metal', in S. Craig (ed) Men, Masculinity and the Media pp. 41-60. Newbury Park: Sage.

Deyhle, D. (1998) ‘From Break Dancing to Heavy Metal: Navajo Youth, Resistance, and Identity.’ Youth and Society 30(1):3-31.

Epstein, J. S., Pratto, D. J. and Skipper, J. K. (1990) 'Teenagers, Behavioural Problems, and Preferences for Heavy Metal and Rap Music: A Case Study of a Southern Middle School', Deviant Behaviour, 11: 381-394.

Foster, J. (2008) Commodified Evil's Wayward Children: Black Metal and Death Metal as Purveyors of an Alternative Form of Modern Escapism. Kartoniert/Broschiert

Friesen, B. (1990) ‘Powerlessness in Adolescence: Exploiting Heavy Metal Listeners.’ in C. Sanders (ed) Marginal conventions: Popular Culture, Mass Media and Social Deviance pp. 65-77. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.

Friesen, B. K. and Epstein, J. S. (1994) 'Rock 'n' Roll Ain't Noise Pollution: Artistic Conventions and Tensions in the Major Sub-Genres of Heavy Metal Music', Popular Music and Society, 19: 1-18.

Friesen, B. and Helfrich W. (1998) ‘Social Justice and Sexism for Adolescents: A Content Analysis of Lyrical Themes and Gender Presentations in Canadian Heavy Metal Music, 1985-1991.’  in J. Epstein (ed) Youth Culture: Identity in a Postmodern World. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Gaines, D. (1990) Teenage Wasteland: Suburbia's Dead End Kids. Harper Collins: New York.

Gencarelli, T (1993) ‘Reading ‘Heavy Metal’ Music : An Interpretive Communities Approach to Popular Music as Communication’.  Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University.

Goodrick-Clarke, N. (2003) Black Sun: Aryan Cults, Esoteric Nazism and the Politics of Identity. New York University Press [Contains chapter on National Socialist Black Metal]

Grant, J. (1996) 'Bring the Noise: Hypermasculinity in Heavy Metal and Rap', Journal of Social Philosophy, 27 (2): 5-31

Greene, P. in press. ‘Introduction: Hard and Soft Wirings.’  in Greene and Porcello (eds) Wired for Sound: Engineering and Technologies in Sonic Cultures. Hannover, NH: Wesleyan University Press.

Greene, P. (2001) 'Mixed Messages: Unsettled Cosmopolitans in Nepali Pop', Popular Music, 20 (2): 169-188.

Gross, R. L. (1990) 'Heavy Metal Music: A New Subculture in American Society', Journal of Popular Culture, 24 (1): 119-129.

Guibert, G and Hein F. (2006) 'Les Scènes Metal: Sciences Sociales et Pratiques Culturelles Radicales’ special issue [mostly in French] of Copyright Volume! 5/2

Guibert, G and Hein F. (2006) 'Prèsentation’ [Introduction to Scènes Metal: Sciences Sociales et Pratiques Culturelles Radicales’ special issue] Copyright Volume! 5/2 5-18 [in French]

Hagen, W. R. (2005) Norwegian Black Metal: Analysis of Musical Style and its Expression in an Underground Music Scene. M.M. dissertation. University of Colorado at Boulder.

Hakanen, E. A. and Wells, A. (1990) 'Adolescent Music Marginals: Who Likes Metal, Jazz, Country and Classical', Popular Music and Society, 14: 57-66.

Halnon, K. B. (2006) ' Heavy Metal Carnival and Dis-alienation: The Politics of Grotesque Realism', Symbolic Interaction, 29 (1), 33-48.

Halnon, K. B. (2004)  ‘Inside Shock Music Carnival: Spectacle as Contested Terrain’, Critical Sociology 30 (3): 743-779.

Hamma, A. (2006) ‘De L’Internationale-Metal au Conflicte Sociétal Local: La Scène de Casablanca’ [Interview] Copyright Volume! 5/2 153-180 [in French]

Hansen, Petter. (2001) ‘Fra gravstøtte til statsstøtte: en kultursosiologisk studie av black metal.’ Oslo: Hovedoppgave i sosiologi, Universitetet i Oslo

Hansen, C. and Hansen R. (1991) ‘Schematic Information Processing of Heavy Metal Lyrics.’ Communication Research 18: 373-411.

Harrell, J. (1994) 'The Poetics of Deconstruction: Death Metal Rock', Popular Music and Society, 18 (1): 91-107.

Harris, K. (1999) 'An Orphaned Land?: Israel and the Global Extreme Metal Scene', in K. Harris (ed) New Voices in Jewish Thought, Vol. 2  pp. 1-21. London: Limmud Publications.

Harris, K. (2000) ''Roots'?: The Relationship Between the Global and the Local Within the Global Extreme Metal Scene', Popular Music, 19 (1): 13-30.

Harris, K. (2001) Transgression and Mundanity: The Global Extreme Metal Music Scene. Doctoral Thesis, Department of Sociology, Goldsmiths College: London.

Harris, K. D. (1997) ‘Music is my Life’?:  Discourse Analysis and the Interview Talk of Members of a Music-Based Subculture, Goldsmiths College, Sociology Working Paper No.4, London.

Harrison, T. (2007) '“Empire”: Chart Performance of Hard Rock and Heavy Metal Groups, 1990–1992', Popular Music and Society 20 (2): 197-225

Harrison, T. (2004) Van Halen: Changes in their Stylistic Development, 1978-1986, Doctoral Thesis, Department of Music, Salford University

Hein, F. (2002) ‘Le ‘Stoner Rock’ : Exemple de Constitution d’un Courant Musical en France. Copyright 1 p. 47-60.

Hein, F. (2003) Hard Rock, Heavy Metal, Metal : Histoire, Cultures et Pratiquants. Mélanie Séteun/Irma, coll. Musique et Société : Clermont-Ferrand/Paris

Hemming, J. (2003) 'Hard Rock, Heavy Metal and Punk: Comparing Psychological Findings with Cultural Studies Accounts' Paper Presented at the 5th Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music, Hanover.

Henry, P. and Caldwell, M. (2007) 'Headbanging as Resistance or Refuge: A Cathartic Account', Consumption, Markets & Culture,10 (2): 159-174

Hill, G. (2006) The Strange Sound of Cthulhu: Music Inspired by the Writings of H. P. Lovecraft. Self-published at http://www.lulu.com/content/379983 [contains chapters on influence of Lovecraft on metal]

Hinds, E. J. W. (1992) 'The Devil Sings the Blues: Heavy Metal, Gothic Fiction and 'Postmodern' Discourse', Journal of Popular Culture, 26 (3): 151-164.

Irwin, W. (ed) (2007) Metallica and Philosophy. Blackwell.

James, K. (2008) 'From 'The Undead Will Feast' to 'The Time to Kill is Now': Frankfurt School and Freudian Perspectives on Death Metal'. Unpublished paper - available here.

Jones, K. (2003) ‘'A Blaze in the Northern Sky' Black Metal Music and Subculture: An Interactionist Account’, Sociology Working Paper No. 36, Manchester: University of Manchester.

Kahn-Harris, K .(2007) Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge. Oxford: Berg Publishers.

Kahn-Harris, K. (2004) 'The 'Failure' of Youth Culture: Reflexivity, Music and Politics in the Black Metal Scene', European Journal of Cultural Studies 7 (1): 95-111

Kahn-Harris, K. (2004) 'Unspectacular Subculture?: Transgression and Mundanity in the Global Extreme Metal Scene', in A. Bennett and K. Kahn-Harris (eds) After Subculture. London: Palgrave.

Kahn-Harris, K. (2002) 'Death Metal and the Limits of Musical Expression', in M. Cloonan and R. Garofalo (eds) Policing Popular Music pp. 81-99. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Kahn-Harris, K. (2002) ‘I Hate This Fucking Country’: Dealing with the Global and the Local in the Israeli Extreme Metal Scene’ Critical Studies 19: Music, Popular Culture, Identities, pp 133-151

Kärki, K. (2006) ''Let's Fucking Die!’: Metallimusiikki, Pahuus Ja Kuoleman Kuvastot.' Peili 1, 16-19

Kelly, S. (2006) 'A Garage of One's Own: Heavy Metal as a Reinvention of Social Technology' in I. Peddie (ed) The Resisting Muse: Popular Music and Social Protest. Ashgate

Klybchak, B. (2007) Performed Identities : Heavy Metal Musicians Between 1984 and 1991. PhD thesis. Bowling Green Stae University.  [a version of this was published in 2007 under the same title by VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller e.K.]

Kotarba, J. A. (1994) 'The Postmodernisation of Rock and Roll Music: The Case of Metallica', in J. Epstein (ed) Adolescents and their Music: If it's too Loud, you're too Old pp. 141-163. New York: Garland Publishing.

Krenske, L. and McKay, J. (2000) ‘'Hard and Heavy': Gender and Power in a Heavy Metal Music Subculture’  Gender, Place and Culture 7 (3): 287-304

Kurz, T. (2000) ‘Der Tod und das Mädchen: Dramatic Expression of the Gothic Subculture in School Instruction.’ The World of Music 42(1).

Lastrade, E. (2005) 'History of Metal', Societes 88: 147-148

Liu, Damon I-Kai. (2007) Extreme Metal in Taiwan: An Investigation. MA Thesis. National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan.[Click on link to access]

Luhr, E.  (2005) ‘Metal Missionaries to the Nation: Christian Heavy Metal Music, ‘Family Values,’ and Youth Culture, 1984-1994’ American Quarterly 57 (1): 103-28

Martens, P (2005) ‘Metallica and the God That Failed: An Unfinished Tragedy in Three Acts’ in M.J. Gilmour (ed) Call Me the Seeker: Listening to Religion in Popular Music New York: Continuum,

Martinez Garcia, S. (2006) ‘La Production de Genres: Analyses Depuis les Périphéries du Metal’ Copyright Volume! 5/2 91-114 [in French]

Martinez Garcia, S. (1997) ‘El Heavy Metal a Barcelona: Aportacions a l'estudi d'una Musica Popular.’ Revista D'Etnologia de Catalunya 11 : 120-23.

Miller, D. S. (1988) Youth, Popular Music and Cultural Controversy:  The Case of Heavy Metal. PhD Thesis, University of Texas: Doctoral thesis, Austin.

Moberg, M. (2008) 'The Internet and the Construction of a Transnational Christian Metal Music Scene' Culture and Religion 9 (1): 81-99

Mombelet, A. and Walzer, S. (eds) (2005) La Religion Metal: Sociologie de la Musique Metal. De Boeck Université

Moynihan, M. and Søderlind, D. (1998) Lords of Chaos: The Bloody Rise of the Satanic Metal Underground. Feral House: Venice, CA.

Mørk, Gry Beate (2002) ‘Drømmer om fortiden, minner for fremtiden. Norsk black metals norrøne orientering, 1992-1995.’ Oslo: Hovedoppgave i religionsvitenskap, Universitetet i Tromsø

Mudrian, A. (2004). Choosing Death: The Improbable History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Feral House.

Petrov, A. (1995) 'The Sound of Suburbia (Death Metal)', American Book Review, 16 (6): 5.

Phillipov, M. (2006). ‘None So Vile? Towards an Ethics of Death Metal’, Southern Review, 38 (2): 74-85.

Phillipov, M. (2004) 'A Gateway to Annihilation?: Death Metal and the Reorientation of Listening' Paper presented at the CSAA Annual Conference, 'Everyday Transformations: The Twenty-First Century Quotidian', Freemantle, Western Australia.

Phillips, D. (1992) ‘Meddling in Metal Music.’ in K. Bindas (ed) Research in American Popular Music, pp 77-94.

Pieslak, Jonathan (2008) 'Sound, Text and Identity in Korn's 'Hey Daddy'' Popular Music 27 (1): 35-52

Pillsbury, G. T. (2006) Damage Incorporated: Metallica and the Production of Musical Identity,  Routledge: New York

Purcell, N. (2003) Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture, Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company.

Rafalovitch, A. (2006) 'Broken and Becoming God-Sized: Contemporary Metal Music and Masculine Individualism' Symbolic Interaction 29 (1): 19–32.

Rana, A. (2008) : 'Dom Kalare oss Hårdrockare: En Kultursociologisk Kartläggning av den Svenska Hårdrockspubliken'  ['They Call Us Metalheads: a Culture Sociology Mapping of the
Swedish Metal Public'] MA (?) thesis, Programmet för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap, Vaxjo University. Available at: http://home.vxu.se/ajpfr02/dom_kallar_oss_hardrockare.pdf (includes English summary)

Reynolds, S. and Press, J. (1995) The Sex Revolts:  Gender, Rebellion and Rock n Roll. Serpent's Tail: London.

Richardson, J. T. (1991) 'Satanism in the Courts: From Murder to Heavy Metal', in J. T. Richardson, J. Best and D. Bromley (eds) The Satanism Scare pp. 205-217. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Richardson, J. T., Best, J. and Bromley, D. (eds) (1991) The Satanism Scare, Aldine de Gruyter, New York.

Richter, S. (1999) 'Goal 666', Granta, 66: 147-161.

Roccor, B. (2000) ‘Heavy Metal: Forces of Unification and Fragmentation within a Musical Subculture.’, The World of Music, 42(1):83-94.

Røisli, Brit. (1996) ‘Satanisme i black-metal miljøet i Norge.’ Hovedoppgave i psykologi, Psykologisk institutt, Universitetet i Oslo

Sægrov, Jon Arne (1996): ‘Svart ungdom.’ Hovedoppgave i pedagogikk, ??

Scott, Niall (2007) ' God Hates Us All: Kant, Radical Evil and the Diabolical Monstrous Human in Heavy Metal' in Scott, N. (ed) Monsters and the Monstrous: Myths and Metaphors of Enduring Evil, Amsterdam: Rodopi

Sloat, L. (1998) ‘Incubus: Male Songwriters' Portrayal of Women's Sexuality in Pop Metal Music.’  in J. Epstein (ed) Youth Culture: Identity in a Postmodern World Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Snell, D. & Hodgetts, D. (2007). 'Heavy Metal, Identity and the Social Negotiation of a Community of Practice'. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 17(6), 430-445.

Stosuy, B. (2008) 'A Blaze in the American Sky'. The Believer 55: 7-22

Straw, W. (1990) 'Characterising Rock Music Culture: The Case of Heavy Metal', in S. Frith and A. Goodwin (eds) On Record: Rock, Pop and the Written Word pp. 97-110. London: Routledge.

Sylvan, R. (2002) Traces of the Spirit: The Religious Dimensions of Popular Music. New York: New York University Press.

Tagg, P. (1994) 'Subjectivity and Soundscape, Motorbikes and Music', in H. Jarvilouma (ed) Soundscapes: Essays on Vroom and Moo pp. 48-66. Tampere: Department of Folk Traditions, Institute of Rhythm Music, University of Tampere.

Tolvanen, H. (2006) ‘The Quiet Past and the Loud Present: The Kalevala and Heavy Meyal’ Copyright Volume! 5/2 75-90

Touché, M. (2006) ‘Metal: Une Culture de la Transgression Sonore’ [Interview] Copyright Volume! 5/2 137-152 [in French]

Trostle, L. (1986) ‘Nihilistic Adolescents, Heavy Metal Rock Music, and Paranormal Beliefs,’ Psychological Reports, 59: 610

Tsitsos, W. (1999) 'Slamdancing, Moshing and the American Alternative Scene', Popular Music, 18 (3): 397-414.

United States Senate (1998) ‘Music Violence: How Does It Affect Our Children: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Restructuring, and the District of Columbia of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, first session, November 6, 1997.’ Washington: U.S. G.P.O

Van Der Velden, D., (2007). 'Crypto Logo Jihad: Black Metal and the Aesthetics of Evil'. Art Papers, NOvember/December issue: p.36-43.

Vestel, V. (1999) 'Breakdance, Red Eyed Penguins, Vikings, Grunge and Straight Rock 'n' Roll: The Construction of Place in Musical Discourse in Rudenga, East Side Oslo', Young, 7 (2): 4-24.

Verden, P., Dunleavy K. and Powers C. (1989) ‘Heavy Metal Mania and Adolescent Delinquency.’ Popular Music and Society 13(1): 73-82.

Waksman, S. (2004) ‘Metal, Punk, and Motorhead: Generic Crossover in the Heart of the Punk Explosion’, Echo: 6(2)

Waksman, S. 2001 'Into the Arena: Edward Van Halen and the Cultural Contradictions of the Guitar hero', in A. Bennett and K. Dawe (eds) Guitar Cultures, Oxford: Berg.

Wallach, J (In press, 2004)  ‘Engineering Techno-Hybrid Grooves in Two Indonesian Sound Studios.’  In P. Greene and T. Porcello (eds) Wired for Sound: Engineering and Technologies in Sonic Cultures  Hanover, New Hampshire: University Press of New England.

Wallach, J (2003) ‘'Goodbye My Blind Majesty': Music, Language, and Politics in the Indonesian Underground.’  in H. Berger and M. Carroll (eds) Global Pop, Local Language  pp. 53-86 Jackson: University Press of Mississippi
Wallach, J  (2002)  ‘Exploring Class, Nation and Xenocentrism in Indonesian Cassette Retail Outlets.’  Indonesia 74 (October): 79-102.

Wallach, J. (2002) ‘Modern Noise and Ethnic Accents: Indonesian Popular Music in the Era of Reformasi.’ Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.

Walser, R. (1993) ‘Professing Censorship: Academic Attacks on Heavy Metal.’ Journal of Popular Music Studies 5: 68-78.

Walser, R. (1993) Running With The Devil:  Power, Gender and Madness in Heavy Metal Music. Wesleyan University Press: Hanover.

Walser, R. (1992) ‘Eruptions: Heavy Metal Appropriations of Classical Virtuosity.’ Popular Music 22 (3): 263-308

Weinstein, D. (2000) Heavy Metal: The Music and its Culture. Da Capo Press: New York.

Wells, Jeremy. 1997. ‘Blackness 'Scuzed: Jimi Hendrix's (In)visible Legacy in Heavy Metal.’ In J. Jackson Fossett and J. A. Tucker  (eds) Race Consciousness: African-American Studies for the New Century pp. 50-63. New York: New York University Press.

Wright, R. (2000) ''I'd Sell You Suicide': Pop Music and Moral Panic in the Age of Marilyn Manson', Popular Music, 19 (3): 365-386.

German language articles, books and other papers

Ableben, A.: The true Mayhem. In Matzke, P. and Seeliger, T. (eds.) Gothic 3. Berlin: Schwarzkopf und Schwarzkopf, 207-211. (in german, recollection of the correspondence with Euronymous and of Mayhems "GDR"-Tour in late 1990)

Akoto, P. (2006) Menschenverachtende Untergrundmusik? Todesfaszination zwischen Entertainment und Rebellion am Beispiel von Gothic-, Metal- und Industrialmusik'. Telos: Münster


Avantario, V. (1993) 'Hard & Heavy: Geschichte und Stilarten des Heavy Metal.' Die grünen Hefte 38: 22-25.

Bartholomé, C. (2004) Metallica: Eine Analyse der Imagekonstruktion und des Imagewandels einer Heavy Metal­Band. Diplomarbeit Universität Hildesheim.


Bettels, A. (2003) Die Heavy Metal­Musik und ihre Bedeutung für Jugendliche -- Ergebnisse einer schriftlichen Befragung unter Fans. Diplomarbeit Universität Hildesheim.


von Billerbeck, L. and Nordhausen, F. (1995) Satanskinder. Der Mordfall Sandro B. Berlin: Ch. Links (2nd ed.). (reconstruction of the 'satanic' murder committed by members of the later NSBM-Band Absurd)

Block, D. (1988) Heavy Metal­Fans. Diplomarbeit Universität Hamburg.

Brinkmann, L. (1999) 'Hard & Heavy: Mythen der Kraft.' In Kemper, P., Langhoff, T. and Sonnenschein, U. (eds.): "alles so schön bunt hier": Die Geschichte der Popkultur von den Fünfzigern bis heute.

Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam jun., 164-174.

Burkhardt, C. (1990) Psychosoziale Funktionen der Heavy­Metal­Musik: Eine Befragung Bremerhavener Heavy­Metal­Fans im Alter von 15­20 Jahren. Staatsexamensarbeit Carl von Ossietzky­Universität Oldenburg 1990.

Chaker, S. (2006): "This means war". Krieg: Zentrales Inhaltsmoment im Black und Death Metal. In Firme, A. and Hocker, R. (eds.): Von Schlachthymnen und Protestsongs. Zur Kulturgeschichte des Verhältnisses von Musik und Krieg; Bielefeld: Transcript, 229-240.

Chaker, S. (2004) Black und Death Metal - Eine empirische Untersuchung zu Gewalt, Religion und politischer Orientierung. GRIN Publishing, Munich

von Cossart, A. (1993) Heavy Metal/Hardrock/Punk (Evolution und Trends). Köln: Voco­Edition.

Diaz­Bone, R. (2002) Kulturwelt, Diskurs und Lebensstil. Eine diskurstheoretische Erweiterung der bourdieuschen Distinktionstheorie. Opladen: Leske und Budrich.

Dornbusch, Ch. and Raabe, J. (2002) RechtsRock. Bestandsaufnahme und Gegenstrategien. Hamburg and Münster: Unrast. (contains an article on NSBM)

Dornbusch, C. and Killguss, H.-P. (2005) Unheilige Allianzen - Black Metal zwischen Satanismus, Heidentum und Neonazismus. Unrast: Münster.

Eggeling, J. (2003) Der Stellenwert des Heavy Metal bei Schülerinnen und Schülern eines Kleinstadtgymnasiums; Münster: Lit (zgl. Diss. Univ. Hamburg, 2002).

Eggeling, J. (2006) Funktionen und Wirkungen okkulter Heavy Metal­Videoclips bei Schülerinnen und Schülern. Norderstedt: Books on Demand.

Esser, G. (1994) 'Zur Hölle mit dem Teufel. Die geheiligten Kämpfer des White Metal.' Der Evangelische Erzieher: Zeitschrift für Pädagogik und Theologie 46, 161-168.

Friemel, F. G. and Schneider, F. (eds.) (1996) "Ich bin ein Kind der Hölle": Nachdenken über den Teufel. Leipzig: St. Benno. (theological reflections about the 'satanic' murder committed by members of the later NSBM-Band Absurd)

Fromm, R. (2003) 'Genese der Black Metal-Subkultur und des Neosatanismus in der Rockmusik'. BPJM-Aktuell 4/2003, 6-12

Fuchs, A. and Majewski, C. (2000) 'Black Metal - Musiksoziologische Analyse der Darstellungsformen und -inhalte einer Subkultur. Diplomica: Hamburg.

Gawlik, M. (1994) Skins, Punks, Kutten und Heavys: Probleme und Ressourcen von Subkultur­Jugendlichen in den neuen Bundesländern: Ergebnisse einer repräsentativen Jugendbefragung. Unsere Jugend 46, 419-426.

Hartwagner, G. (1984) 'Warenästhetik als wahre Ästhetik. Anmerkungen zu gewalthaltigen Bildern auf Schallplattenhüllen.' medien + erziehung 28, 270-280.

Heesch, F, (2009) Black Metal-Sirenen: Mythenrezeption und Weiblichkeitsbilder bei Astarte. In: Annette Kreutziger-Herr, Katrin Losleben (Eds.), History/Herstory: Alternative Musikgeschichten, Köln: Böhlau (Musik - Kultur - Gender, vol. 5), pp. 389-404.

Jenal, Ch. (1994) 'Jugendgewalt im Spiegel der Musikkultur.' Kind Jugend Gesellschaft: Zeitschrift für Jugendschutz 39, 20-23.

Katheder, G. (1990) 'Heavy Metal ist nicht böse, es sieht nur so aus' Unsere Jugend 42, 43-46.

Kilthaus, O., Winter, A. and Ebner, H.G. (1997) 'Zur Kraft des Stereotyps -- Eine empirische Analyse behaupteter Zusammenhänge von Einstellungen und Musikpräferenzen von Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von Heavy Metal.' Zeitschrift für Sozialisationsforschung und Erziehungssoziologie 17, 368-381.

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Langebach, M. (2007) 'Die Black-Metal-Szene: Eine qualitative Studie. Vdm: Saarbrücken.

Lenz, P. (1989) 'It isn't Rock'n'Roll -- that's why we like it: Faschistische und satanistische Tendenzen des Heavy Metal im Kontext der Geschichte der Rockmusik.' In Dahl, E. and Dürkob, C. (eds.): Rock­Lyrik: Exemplarische Analyse englischsprachiger Song­Texte. Essen: Die Blaue Eule, 188-212.

Lohmann, Johannes (2002) Wiedererwachen germanischer Werte? Journal der Jugendkulturen Nr. 7, 8-16. (discusses NSBM?)

Mühlmann, W.­R. (1999) Letzte Ausfahrt: Germania: Ein Phänomen namens neue deutsche Härte. Berlin: IP­Verlag Jeske, Mader.

Nolteernsting, E. (2002) Heavy Metal: Die Suche nach der Bestie. Bad Tölz: Tilsner.


Roccor, B. (1993) Heavy Metal: Eine Fantypologie anhand von Kleidung. Magisterarbeit Universität Regensburg.

Roccor, B. (1994) Heavy Metal: Gewaltdarstellung oder Gewaltverherrlichung? In Brednich, R. and Hartinger, W. (eds.) Gewalt in der Kultur. Vorträge des 29. Deutschen Volkskundekongresses: Passau 1993: Teilband II, Passau: Lehrstuhl für Volkskunde der Universität Passau, 645-658.

Roccor, B. (1998) Heavy Metal - Kunst Kommerz Ketzerei. Berlin: I.P. Verlag Jeske/Mader


Rohlf, O. (1994) Extrem, Explizit, Erhaben -- Heavy Metal als neue E­Musik. In Faulstich, W. and Schäffner, G. (eds.): Die Rockmusik der 80er Jahre: 4. Lüneburger Kolloquium zur Medienwissenschaft. Bardowick: Wissenschaftler­Verlag, 47-68.

Roczek, K. (2004) "Heavy Metal"­Szene -- Gesellschaftliche Außenseiter? Eine empirische Studie. Magisterarbeit Universität Osnabrück.

Schütz, V. (1993) 'Auf der Suche nach dem eigenen inneren Geheimnis. Rockmusik als Symbol jugendlicher Religiosität.' Musik und Unterricht: Zeitschrift für Musikkpädagogik 4, 15--21. (contains a discussion of the beginning of Warlock's "All We Are")

Seidl, R. (2008)  Ideologie im Black Metal: Eine psychologische Analyse zu Neuheidentum und rechtsextremer Gesinnung. Vdm: Saarbrücken.


Simon, B. (2003) Heavy Metal: Leidenschaft, Lebensprinzip und Katharsis: Eine empirische Studie. Aachen: Shaker.

Stichweh, O. (2002) Heavy Metal: Mehr als nur ein jugendkulturelles Phänomen? Ästhetische Erfahrung und Bildung im Umgang mit Populärmusik. Diplomarbeit Universität Hildesheim.

Stock, M. and Mühlberg, Ph. (1990) Die Szene von innen: Skinheads, Grufties, Heavy Metals, Punks. Berlin: LinksDruck­Verlag.

Tandecki, D. (2000): Nachtsaiten der Musik: Grauzonen und Braunzonen in der schwarzen Musikszene. St. Augustin: Konrad­Adenauer­Stiftung. <http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_2989-544-1-30.pdf>

Vogelgesang, W. (1998) Inszenierungsrituale von jugendlichen Black Metal­Fans. Willems, H. and Jurga, M. (eds.) Inszenierungsgesellschaft: Ein einführendes Handbuch. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 163-176.

Wehrli, R. (2005)  Verteufelter Heavy Metal: Skandale und Zensur in der neueren Musikgeschichte. Telos: Münster.

Weindl, Dina (2005) Musik & Aggression: Untersucht anhand des Musikgenres Heavy Metal. Frankfurt a.M. u.a.O.: Lang.

Zerkübel, M. (1990): Wenn ihr mich nicht verstehen wollt, sollt ihr mich fürchten lernen: Anmerkungen zum Okkultrock. Bischöfliches Generalvikariat Aachen, Hauptabteilung Gemeindearbeit, Referat Sekten- und Weltanschauungsfragen (ed.) (Red.: Hermann­Josef Beckers): Neue Kultbewegungen und Weltanschauungsszene 2: Hintergründe, besondere Phänomene, Ortsbeschreibungen, methodische Hilfen und Anleitungen.

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